We're Facing 'The Biggest Global Health Threat Of The 21st Century.' Our Next Move Is Critical.

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Sometimes the information on his topic feels pretty doom and gloom, but it doesn’t have to be. I think this is a good place for that saying about making lemonade out of lemons — ’cause we can make changes for the better here.

Read more: http://upworthy.com/were-facing-the-biggest-global-health-threat-of-the-21st-century-our-next-move-is-critical

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Dropping In

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Dropping In

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The 'Kilnsea-boat', and some implications from the discovery of England's oldest plank boat remains.

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Introduction

A plank found by members of the Hull Natural History Society in

September 1996 on the Kilnsea beach in the East Riding of Yorkshire,

England [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 1 OMITTED] has been identified as a

piece of a prehistoric boat. It was transported to the Hull and East

Riding Museum in Hull, where analysis and dating of the plank were

undertaken within the framework of the English Heritage commissioned

Humber Wetlands Survey. Radiocarbon assay of the plank provided a date

for the boat of 1870-1670 BC, which makes this the oldest dated

plank-built boat fragment from England. Currently, the plank is under

conservation at the York Archaeological Wood Centre – the conservation

process is anticipated to be completed in 1999, when it will be returned

to Hull and East Riding Museum for display. This report presents the

main elements of the analysis and context of the find, and considers

some of the implications of its discovery for the debate on the function

and use of Bronze Age plank boats.

Context, description and dating of the ‘Kilnsea-boat’

Although the Kilnsea-boat was found lying on the beach during low

tide, it is thought that the find is associated with an estuarine rather

than a coastal context. The severe erosion of East Yorkshire’s

Holderness coastline is well documented for the past and present, and

with an average annual lateral coastal erosion of 1 to 2 m (Sheppard

1912) the Holderness coast of the Bronze Age may have been as much as 3

to 6 km to the east of the current coast, although alternative scenarios

of coastal changes have been suggested for this area (Valentin 1971; De

Boer 1964; Berridge & Pattison 1994). A short distance from the site

of the plank, remains of an intertidal woody peat are exposed during low

tides (Bisat 1952). The peat underlies a plastic clay rich in the

mollusc Scrobicularia plana. A similar peat on the shore at Kilnsea

Warren, 3 km further south, appears to have been forming c. 5000 years

BP (Gaunt & Tooley 1974), and the deposits are related to the

Kilnsea Fleet which lies within the estuarine catchment of the River

Humber, rather than with coastal deposits (cf. Dinnin 1995). Although

severely desiccated, the plank could only have survived in a wetland

environment such as Kilnsea Fleet, where peat deposits are at present

also severely desiccated.

The plank itself is of oak (Quercus), and its maximum dimensions

are 1596 mm long, 350 mm wide and c. 60 mm thick (not including the

cleats) [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 2 OMITTED]. The plank was severely worn

and desiccated, with none of the edges intact and toolmarks only

distinguishable on the upper side of the plank. When the effects of

desiccation are discounted, the plank is not curved in either transverse

or longitudinal direction, leaving a fiat underside. Projecting from the

upper side are the remains of an integral cleat, measuring 712 mm in

length, 115 mm [TABULAR DATA FOR TABLE 1 OMITTED] wide and a maximum

height of 55 mm, although the latter represents a broken surface. Part

of the cleat was broken off, leaving a clearly distinguishable scar on

the plank surface. Two mortised holes are distinguishable within the

cleat, of 45 mm and 56 mm by (at least) 31 mm respectively. The plank

was fashioned tangentially from the tree trunk, with the underside of

the plank nearer the outside of the trunk. No evidence of stitchholes or

stitches of twisted withy of yew or similar material was found on the

plank, which must be attributed to the eroded nature of the plank and

its dislocation shortly before its discovery.

There is little doubt that the plank was part of a sewn plank boat.

The use of large integral cleats, carved out of the solid planks,

through which transverse timbers were passed to provide stiffness to the

hull, is a construction technique common to all known Bronze Age plank

boats from the British Isles (cf. Wright 1990; McGrail 1997; 1998a),

while this technique is unrecorded from Bronze Age wetland sites such as

trackways and settlements. Furthermore, its location near an intertidal

inlet supports this determination. Compared to its geographically

nearest parallel, the Bronze Age boats from North Ferriby which were

found c. 40 km upstream from Kilnsea (Wright 1990), the dimensions of

the plank, cleat and mortised holes closely resembles Ferriby 1. If the

Kilnsea-boat was similar to Ferriby 1, the plank described here could

have been part of the keel-plank, or alternatively, the outer bottom

strake.

The tangentially cut plank presented an insufficient number of

tree-rings for dendrochronological dating, and so two samples from the

underside of the plank were submitted for radiocarbon measurements

(TABLE 1). The two determinations are statistically significantly

different at 95% confidence, but not at 99% (Ward & Wilson 1978).

They have therefore been combined before calibration to produce a

calibrated date range of 1870-1670 BC (at 95% confidence). All

calibrated dates in TABLE 1 have been calculated using OxCal v2.18

(Bronk Ramsey 1995), data from Pearson & Stuiver (1986) and the

maximum intercept method of Stuiver & Reimer (1986) with ranges

rounded outwards to 10 years (Meek 1986).

Dated Bronze Age sewn plank boats

Since the discovery of Ferriby 1 in 1937, the partial remains of

six additional plank boats of Bronze Age date have been discovered,

although the Brigg ‘raft’ had been initially exposed in 1888

during excavation of brick clay, and was not recognized as a Bronze Age

plank boat until more recent research was undertaken (McGrail 1981). All

dated Bronze Age sewn plank boats from England are listed in TABLE 1.

Dating of logboats from the British Isles in any systematic manner has

only commenced recently, but the 25 dated logboats from the area provide

a date-range from c. 1400 BC to the 14th century AD (McGrail 1998). The

claim for the Kilnsea-boat being England’s oldest boat is, on the

basis of current data, justified. However, the date of a side strake

from a sewn plank boat from Caldicot, Wales, has been determined as

1880-1690 BC (at 95% confidence; TABLE 1). This appears to be broadly

contemporary with the date of the Kilnsea boat. Such an early date for a

plank built boat is unsurprising. Wright (1990), for example, has long

held the view that the ancestry of the style of boat-building of Ferriby

1 and 2 had to be sought in the Early rather than the Middle Bronze Age.

The dating of the Kilnsea fragment supports this view.

Seacraft or rivercraft of the Bronze Age?

Cultural exchange between continental Europe and the British Isles

is well attested for the later Neolithic and earlier Bronze Age periods,

c. 2500-1500 BC, but the type of craft by which this contact was

established and maintained remains a subject of debate. This debate has

thus far focused mainly on technical specifications of design of Bronze

Age sewn plank boats, which are generally considered the most likely

candidates for seafaring, although such functions have also been

proposed for hide or skinboats on theoretical grounds (cf. McGrail

1993). The debate is predominantly based on assessments of the

seaworthiness of boat-reconstructions (e.g. Coates in Wright 1990;

McGrail 1981; 1998b). The limited remains of the Kilnsea-boat preclude

its reconstruction and assessment of performance, but its location in

the outer estuary, where its role as a ferry can only be considered

impractical, suggest that coastal and indeed seafaring functions should

be contemplated. In fact, the distribution of all known sewn plank boats

of Bronze Age date supports such a function (see TABLE 1). Remains of

dated plank boats have been discovered either in estuaries, such as

Ferriby 1 to 3 and Goldcliff, or in tidal rivers near estuaries or the

coast, including the boats from Kilnsea, Brigg, Caldicot and, most

significantly, Dover, but not on inland rivers. This distribution

appears to be significant, especially when it is compared to the

distribution of logboats, be it mostly undated, which includes typically

tidal rivers and inland waters, but only rarely estuaries or coasts.

Within the context of late Neolithic and early Bronze Age exchange,

the assessment of seaworthiness of the reconstructed boats may well be

considered of limited value. Studies of elite networks and long-distance

interaction attest of the prestige attached to exchanged objects, which

in this context include beaker pottery and bronze and gold objects

(Burgess 1978; cf. Bradley 1990). If the seaworthiness of Bronze Age

plank boats was genuinely or perceived as severely limited, for example

in terms of risk to the lives of the mariners, or their use as seacraft

was only possible under extremely favourable weather conditions, this

could contribute to the prestige attached to the exchanged objects and

enhance the membership of elite networks. Obviously, the use of plank

boats as seacraft does not exclude their use on rivers and estuaries.

Conclusion

The plank with integral cleat discovered on Kilnsea beach is

probably part of the outer bottom strake or keel-plank of a built boat

dated to c. 1870-1670 BC. The use of the Kilnsea-boat and other recent

discoveries of Bronze Age plank boats from England and Wales is

considered in the light of the location of finds. It was concluded that

plank boats were sea-going vessels capable of carrying small cargoes and

reaching Continental Europe. As such, they would have enabled the

exchange of prestige goods by coastal routes and with Continental

Europe, leading to the support of elite networks.

Acknowledgements. We are grateful to English Heritage for its

support during the analysis and for the conservation of the boat

fragment, to Ian Panter for much valued advice and information and to

Professor Seen McGrail and Edward Wright for comments on an earlier

draft of this paper.

References

BELL, M. 1993. Intertidal archaeology at Goldcliff in the Severn

estuary, in Coles et el. (ed.): 9-13.

BERRIDGE, N.G.& J. PATTISON. 1994. Geology of the country

around Grimsby and Patrington. Memoir for 1:50.000 sheets 90 and 91 and

81 and 82 (England and Wales). London: British Geological Survey, HMSO.

BISAT, W.S. 1952. Post-glacial peat and Scrobicularia clay near

Easington, Yorkshire, Transaction of the Leeds Geological Association 6:

210-14.

BRADLEY, R. 1990. The passage of arms. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press.

BRONK RAMSEY, C. 1995. Radiocarbon calibration and analysis of

stratigraphy, Radiocarbon 36: 425-30.

BURGESS, C. 1978. The background of early metalworking in Ireland

and Britain, in M. Ryan (ed.), The origins of metallurgy in Atlantic

Europe: 207-14. Dublin: Stationery Office.

COLES, J.M., V. FENWICK & G. HUTCHINSON (ed.). 1993. A spirit

of enquiry. Essays for Ted Wright. Exeter: Wetland Archaeology Research

Project.

DE BOER, G. 1964. Spurn Point: its history and evolution,

Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 34: 71-89.

DINNIN, M. 1995. Introduction to the palaeoenvironmental survey, in

R. Van de Noort & S. Ellis (ed.), Wetland Heritage of Holderness: an

archaeological survey: 27-48. Hull: Humber Wetlands Project, University

of Hull.

GAUNT, G.D. & M.J. TOOLEY 1974. Evidence for Flandrian

sea-level changes in the Humber estuary and adjacent areas, Bulletin of

the Geological Survey of Great Britain 48: 25-41.

HILLAM, J. 1998. Tree-ring analysis of oak timbers from the

excavations at Goldcliff, Gwent. Ancient Monument Laboratory Report,

xx/98.

MCGRAIL, S. 1981. The Brigg ‘Raft’ and her prehistoric

environment. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports. British series 89.

National Maritime Museum Archaeological Series 6.

1993. Prehistoric seafaring in the Channel, in C. Scarre & F.

Healy (ed.), Trade and Exchange in Prehistoric Europe: 199-210. Oxford:

Oxbow. Monograph 33.

1997. The boat fragments, in N. Nayling & A. Caseldine,

Excavations at Caldicot, Gwent: Bronze Age palaeochannels in the Lower

Nedern Valley: 210-17. York: Council for British Archaeology. Research

report 108.

1998a: Ancient boats in North-West Europe. The archaeology of water

transport to AD 1500. Revised paperback edition. London: Longman.

1998b: Humber wrecks, in J.P. Delgado (ed.), Encyclopaedia of

underwater and maritime archaeology: 199-200. London: British Museum

Press.

MOOK, W.G. 1986. Business meeting: recommendations/resolutions

adopted by the Twelfth International Radiocarbon Conference, Radiocarbon

28: 799.

PARFITT, K. & V. FENWICK. 1993. The rescue of Dover’s

Bronze Age boat, in Coles et el. (ed.): 77-80.

PEARSON, G.W. & M. STUIVER. 1986. High-precision calibration of

the radiocarbon time scale, 500-2500 BC, Radiocarbon 28: 839-62.

SHEPPARD, T. 1912. The lost towns of the Yorkshire coast. Hull:

Brown.

STUIVER. M. & P.J. REIMER 1986. A computer program for

radiocarbon age calculation, Radiocarbon 28: 1022-30.

1993 Extended 14C data based and revised CALIB 3.0 14C age

calibration program, Radiocarbon 35: 215-30.

SWITSUR, V. R. & E.V. WRIGHT. 1989. Radiocarbon ages and

calibrated dates for the boats from North Ferriby, Humberside – a

reappraisal, Archaeological Journal 146: 58-67.

VALENTIN, H. 1971. Land loss at Holderness, in J.A. Steers (ed.),

Applied coastal geomorphology: 116-37. London: Macmillan.

WARD, G.K. & S.R. WILSON. 1978. Procedures for comparing and

combining radiocarbon age determinations: a critique, Archaeometry 20:

19-31.

WRIGHT, E.V. 1990. The Ferriby boats. Seacraft of the Bronze Age.

London: Routledge.

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10 Magnificent Living Trees

| Posted in Fun & Goofy

This lister loves trees for their beauty, serenity and their ability to make humans look thoroughly insignificant. The next time you walk by one, you are walking by something that may have seen a substantial portion of our species’s history. They are the inspiration for tons of art, through all periods, across all genres. Here are 10 reasons why.

The Llangernyw Yew Split

It is a yew tree growing in the churchyard of Llangernyw, Wales, and its core trunk died long ago, leaving its current appearance: several huge trunks having separated from the original. These trunks did not sprout after the original died (see #7), but were homogeneous sections of the original until its core died, whereupon they separated and continued to live off the same roots. Without the core, counting the tree’s rings cannot be accomplished. The trunks have a total circumference of about 33 feet.

Yew trees are extremely difficult to age, even with radio-carbon dating, and thus, their ages are usually estimates. This one is estimated to be at least 4,000 years old, and may be 5,000, making it the third oldest known, living, single organism on the Planet. It is not merely still alive; it is still getting bigger. This species of Yew grows very straight, and its wood possesses extraordinary strength, flexibility, and durability, making it the best wood, by far, for English longbows. It is generally accepted that because the Llangernyw Yew grows in a church cemetery founded about the 1200s AD, it escaped being cut down for such use throughout most of the English longbow’s storied history.

Major-Oak-Sherwood

It is believed that if there was a Robin Hood, he and his merry men took shelter under this tree, and even inside its trunk, when Sherwood Forest was much larger and easy to disappear into. It is at least 800 years old, and maybe 1,000, making its use by people of Robin Hood’s time possible. It would have already stood close to its present size by that time.

The canopy spreads to 92 feet, but its trunk is what visitors are most awed by: 33 feet in circumference. It stands about 53 feet, and its branches have been so massive as to need to be supported by posts since Victoria took the throne, lest they break off under their own weight. This would not kill the tree, but it would ruin its appearance, and thus, Great Britain has seen to its welfare.

260 of its acorns have grown into saplings, planted southwest in Dorset as a study of the Major Oak’s DNA, and what its descendants will look like.

Olivetree

It is the oldest known olive tree on Earth, with a tree ring age of at least 2,000 years. Carbon daters have estimated it to be about 4,000 years old, and it still produces tasty olives today. It is 15 feet thick at the base, is not particularly tall, as olive trees go, but is, quite literally, gnarly. Totally gnarly. The trunk is magnificently swirled, knotted, and bulbous.

This one may be the tree Pliny the Elder (23-79 AD) wrote of when mentioning a sacred Greek olive tree 1,600 years old in his lifetime. Though the olive trees growing in the Garden of Gethsemane, in Jerusalem, have not yet been verified to date back to the time of Jesus, several are claimed to be that old, and this tree is the same species, lending great credence to the possibility.

Old-Tree 1A

Pando is Latin for “I spread.” It is not one tree. It is about 47,000 quaking aspen trees, all growing from a single root system. That root system is spread over 106 acres, is about 80,000 years old, and experts have no idea when it will die. It weighs about 6,600 tons, making it the heaviest organism of any kind known to exist in the Universe. The experts are fairly certain that it has not flowered for the last 10,000 years, thus the end of the last Ice Age. Every time a wildfire has burned down all its trees, the root system has survived underground and started anew.

Each tree lives for about 130 years, dies, and is reconstituted through the roots and becomes a new tree, elsewhere, nearby. The trees reproduce by means of suckers, which are lateral roots sent out from each trunk until they sprout out of the dirt. These trees don’t look identical, but they have an identical genetic makeup, all spreading from one root system to form a single genetic individual, called a clonal colony. In fall, the leaves change to the color of gold brick and seem to glow in the sunlight.

Screen Shot 2011-07-30 At 4.53.03 Pm

It grows on the eastern slopes of the very fertile Mount Etna volcanic soil, on Sicily, only 5 miles from the crater. It is estimated to be at least 2,000 years old, and very possibly as old as 4,000, making it the oldest chestnut tree ever known, and the largest. In 1780, it was a single trunk measuring 190 feet in circumference at chest-height.

It has since split into multiple trunks with empty space in the middle, but all the trunks share a single root system. Unlike #7, however, these trunks have not died. They are the same wood and branches as were seen by humans 2,000 to 4,000 years ago. This means it is at least 1,000 years older than King David of the Old Testament. The name comes from a legend that tells of a medieval queen of Aragon taking shelter under it with 100 knights, during a thunderstorm. The tree was able to cover all 101 people. Because it is the oldest known chestnut, much older than average, botanists have no idea when it will die. It is as healthy now as chestnuts that die of old age at 1,000 years.

General Sherman1

Unlike #2, Gen. Sherman is only 275 feet tall. Compare that to the average oak tree, which grows to about 75 to 90 feet. General Sherman is a Giant Sequoia, not a Coast Redwood, and not even close to the tallest (see #2). What it is, however, is the most massive, non-clonal tree in the world, by volume. It has 52,513 cubic feet of wood in its trunk. This does not count branches. It is somewhere between 2,300 and 2,700 years old, which means it might have sprouted about the time the Book of Isaiah was written, before the Battle of Thermopylae.

Its largest and most famous branch broke off on its own in 2006. It was in the shape of a golf club in pictures dating before then, and the tree discarded it as a defense mechanism in adverse climate conditions. That branch was larger than most trees, 6 feet thick, over 100 feet long, and required a flatbed truck to be taken away, after it was cut up. It fell 130 feet and left a crater in the cement walkway around the tree. At chest-height from the ground, the trunk is 25 feet thick, making General Sherman 10 times thicker than the average full-grown oak.

General Sherman’s root ball covers almost 2 full acres and contains over 100,000 cubic feet of dirt. That’s more than enough to fill up an Olympic-size swimming pool, and it sprouted from a seed that weighed 1/6000th of one ounce.

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It is on the north side of Miyanoura-dake, the tallest mountain on Yakoshima Island, south of Kyushu. It is a cryptomeria conifer, called sugi in Japanese, 83 feet tall, 53 feet around at the base, and like yews, carbon dating accuracy is difficult to achieve from it. Its rings have been used to give an age of at least 2,000 years. Beyond this, the sources vary dramatically, going all the way up to 7,000. The tree grows in a very rugged area, 4 to 5 hours from the nearest road, and was not even discovered to be important until 1968. In 2005, souvenir hounds cut off a 4 square inch piece of its bark. It is now viewable only from an observation deck 50 feet away and is under armed guard. It is the oldest conifer in Japan

10-Most-Magnificent-Trees-In-The-World-Montezuma-Cypress-The-Tule-Tree-7

It stands 116 feet tall on the church ground of Santa Maria del Tule, Oaxaca, Mexico, and has the distinction of having the single widest trunk of any tree known on Earth: 38.1 feet in diameter. This is stouter than any known sequoia or coast redwood. The best estimate so far of its age dates it to anywhere from 1,400 to 1,600 years old. This actually concurs with a local Zapotec legend that tells of its planting 1,400 years ago by, Ehecatl, the Aztec wind god. It is stout enough to completely cover the average American house.

Tallest-Tree-In-The-World

Hyperion is a Coast Redwood, and has the distinction of being the tallest living organism ever measured. It is 379.3 feet tall. That’s 38 stories, 100 feet taller than #5, 50 feet taller than the tallest habitable building in Washington, D. C. It grows in Redwood National Park and was not even discovered until 25 August, 2006, because all the trees around it are also redwoods, and are all gargantuan.

Like all redwoods and sequoias (very similar species), Hyperion is so enormous that it possesses its own ecosystem, with full-size pines and hemlocks growing on its branches. It is so high that if you could avoid the branches (and other trees) on the way down, BASE jumping would be no problem at all. There are no confirmed photos of it on the Internet, because scientists don’t want it disturbed or damaged by tourists. Like the Giant Sequoia, you can fit about 10 coast redwood seeds on the face of a dime.

Methuselah1

It is a Bristlecone Pine Tree, named after the oldest person in the Bible whose age is given. The Methuselah Tree is generally held to be the oldest living, individual organism on Earth, measured at 4,842 years and counting. The Bristlecone Pine species can take 700 years to grow 3 feet.

It is located in the Bristlecone Forest of the Ancients, in Inyo National Park, in the White Mountains of Eastern California. Its precise location has not been divulged out of concern for its protection. Bristlecone Pines do not grow particularly tall, reaching 50 feet, with a trunk diameter of anywhere from 8 to 12 feet, making for a squat, solid tree, but what they lack in grandiose height they more than make up for by outlasting every other single organism on the planet.

Methuselah still isn’t the oldest known. That was Prometheus, which was at least 20 years older than Methuselah now, before it was mistakenly cut down in 1964 by a dendrology student who had no idea how old it was. Prometheus might have been 5,000 years old or more, and Methuselah shows no signs of disease or weakness in any way. Researchers expect it to reach 5,000.

Let’s put that into perspective. It sprouted out of the ground in c. 2832 BC. That’s about 1,500 years before Moses was born. Back then, Egypt’s Second Dynasty was just getting going and the earliest Egyptian pyramids would not be built for another 200 years. Methuselah is about 800 years older than the Maya civilization. Biblical literalists (this lister not among them, in this case) like to theorize that the Methuselah Tree was the first living thing to appear on Earth (aside from the things in the various boats) after Noah’s Flood. That’s dubious, at best, but it’s a fun idea.

Arbretnr800X600

The Tree of Tenere is not numbered but given a bonus mention because it was knocked down by a drunken truck driver, in 1973. It was an Acacia tortillas tree, the species made famous in the Serengeti by grazing giraffes. This one lived in Northeast Niger, in the Tenere area of the south central Sahara Desert, 250 miles away from absolutely anything except the Saharan desert sand. Today, there is a metal sculpture in its place as a memorial. It lived next to a 130-foot deep well, and the only reason there is almost no vegetation in the Sahara Desert is because the water table is at least 110 feet under the surface of the earth throughout the Desert.

The tree’s roots somehow grew 120 feet long, reaching the water table, and thus enabled it to grow in a place so inhospitable that it was the remotest tree in the world. Today the world’s most remote tree is believed to be a Norwegian Spruce on Campbell Island, south of New Zealand. It is the only tree on the island, and the next nearest are over 120 miles away on the Auckland Islands.

Acacia trees have been planted several times in the Tenere tree’s spot, but none has lasted in the arid climate. How it was able to survive for the 20 to 40 years its roots would have taken to reach the water table remains a mystery, but it might have grown through the walls of the well and received all the water it needed as it descended.

Read more: http://listverse.com/2011/07/30/10-magnificent-living-trees/

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New Jersey Drunk Driving (dwi) Defense Series: Other Related Dwi Offenses (5 Of 7)

| Posted in Fun & Goofy

This article continues the New Jersey Drunk Driving (DWI) Defense Series by describing Other Related DWI Offenses.

A. Allowing Others to Drive Your Vehicle

You can be convicted of a DWI offense if you allow an intoxicated person to operate your motor vehicle (Allowing Offense). If you are convicted of this offense, you will be sentenced to penalties similar to a DWI Offense conviction. The intellectual underpinning for this part of the Drunk Driving Statute is based on a public policy that finds no distinction between the serious risks created by drunk drivers and those who allow drunk drivers to operate a motor vehicle.

Apart from the basic similarities in sentencing options that exist between an Allowing Offense and a DWI Offense, the facts that the government must prove for each of the offenses are almost the same, including the opportunity to use the per se component of the statute. There are a couple of material additions to the government’s proofs, however.

First, you must consciously and knowing consent to the operation of the vehicle and provide the intoxicated person with an opportunity to drive the vehicle. Thus, if you are intoxicated and turn over your keys to your buddy who is also drunk, you can be convicted of an Allowing Offense even if you are later found asleep in the back seat of the vehicle. Second, you must have actual and constructive knowledge that the operator was intoxicated at the time authorization to drive was given. Consequently, if you allowed your friend to borrow your car when he was sober, and he later became intoxicated, you could not be convicted of an Allowing Offense.

Third, you must own, control, or have custody of the vehicle operated by a drunk driver. Ownership of a vehicle is self-evident control. Ordinarily, the government can show control or custody of a vehicle by establishing some type of connection between you and the motor vehicle. For example, if your father allows you to drive the family car, and you later give the keys to your intoxicated friend, you can be convicted of an Allowing Offense.

B. DWI Offense With A Minor Present

If you operate a motor vehicle while intoxicated where the vehicle is occupied by a minor, in addition the to DWI offense, you may also be convicted of a disorderly persons offense if you are the parent or guardian of the child. Notably, a disorderly persons offense is criminal in nature, whereas a DWI Offense is a motor vehicle violation. As a disorderly persons offender, you may be sentenced to a period of incarceration for up to 6 months and fined up to $1,000. Moreover, if your level of intoxication is elevated, you may be charged with an indictable offense involving the endangerment of a minor. This offense can expose you to a term of imprisonment from 3 to 5 years.

C. Under-Age DWI Offense

If you are younger than 21 years of age and you decide to drive a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcohol or drugs, special rules apply. Unlike the adult counterpart of the DWI statute, which creates a presumption of intoxication with a .08% BAC, the “Baby DWI Statute,” as it is sometimes referred to, creates the presumption at .01% BAC. Further, the so-called Baby DWI Statute, unlike the adult statute, does not appear to require operation on a public road to be an offense.

D. Boating DWI Offense

If you operate a boat while intoxicated, you can be convicted of an offense that will expose you to a serious collection of penalties, including the loss of you drivers license and boating licenses, extensive fines, and even a jail term. N.J.S.A. 12:7-46 (Boating DWI Offense).

The statute defines a boat or vessel as one that must be equipped with some type of motor. A boat propelled by a sail or muscle (e.g. row boat, canoe) does not apply. Moreover, the boat must be operated in the waters of the State of New Jersey, including lakes, rivers, streams, lagoons, inlets and contiguous ocean areas.

The term “operation” is broadly defined to mean navicate, use, control or command. Resultantly, an intoxicated owner of a boat who is not actually operating it may be convicted of a Boating DWI Offense and if the operated is intoxicated, the owner can be convicted of allowing a drunk to operate his boat.

Jurisdiction for the prosecution of a Boating DWI Offense can be set in the municipal court where the offense occurred or the Superior Court.

Copyright (c) 2008 Frank Luciano

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Celebrate St. Patrick’s Day on a Houseboat Holiday

| Posted in House Boats

Irish and non-Irish alike celebrate St. Patrick’s Day each year by dressing up in green and enjoying a favorite beverage or two with friends and family. But the annual holiday is actually a perfect time to rent a houseboat and enjoy a fun outing at your favorite lake or river anywhere in the country.

Great Rates, Great Time For Spring Getaway

With the holiday falling in the early spring, rental rates for houseboats are often lower and demand is not at its peak as with other favorite vacation days such as Memorial Day or the Fourth of July.

Daily and weekly rental rates vary based on your destination. A 50′ craft that holds two to six guests and includes a gas barbecue grill with fully equipped kitchen can range from $469.00 to $675.00 daily with weekly rates from $429.00 to $596.00 per day.

A 70′ pleasure boat that accommodates 10 people and features a full dining room and complete entertainment center can range from $1,063.00 to $1,274.00 per day with weekly rates from $975.00 to $1,124.00 per day.

Plus, when the holiday coincides on a weekend, it provides the perfect opportunity to have a memorable St. Patrick’s Day party on the water as you and your guests enjoy music, food and perhaps even some fishing from the comfort of your houseboat.

Once the party ends, enjoy an extra day or two cruising down the waterway before stopping off to take in a scenic mountain hike, enjoy a para-sailing lesson from the shore or step off the dock and take an afternoon stroll through the local towns along the route.

Lake of the Ozarks Celebration

While many cities host a St. Patrick’s Day parade, the town of Lake of the Ozarks, Missouri has two. One occurs along the main strip in town and the other on the lake itself. The local chamber of commerce invites boat owners to decorate their crafts in full St. Patrick’s Day party spirit with balloons, banners and more, before taking part in the water parade that starts out in the early morning at the Gravois arm of the lake.

Those looking to rent a houseboat during the holiday can choose to have a close-up view of the festivities from their craft or get involved themselves by participating in the parade. An award for “best decorated” boat is given out by a dancing leprechaun who judges all entries that float past him in the popular event that goes on rain or shine each year.

After enjoying the display of boat floats on the water, step onto dry land at the Bagnell Dam strip to enjoy the parade now in its 29th year. Visitors can enjoy local marching bands, talented singers competing in the “Irish Idol” contest, along with watching the many decorative floats covered in green roll on by the street.

Local restaurants will offer guests special all-Irish meals and treats. Once the parade ends, stay afterwards as during nighttime the strip closes down for an “adults only” celebration that goes on until the wee hours.

Whether enjoying a festive celebration with a large group of friends or taking advantage of a much-needed romantic springtime weekend getaway, St. Patrick’s Day is an ideal time to revel in all things Irish while you enjoy cruising on the water during your houseboat holiday.

http://www.GoPlayOutdoors.com is your best resource to rent houseboats at multiple sites across the USA and Canada.

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River Rafting And Camping In India

| Posted in India

Central Himalayan Adventure is offering River Rafting in India more than ever for weekend to make you stop thinking about daily life stress and tension.

Central Himalayan Adventure Established in the year 2007 by Mr. Virendra Rana, Central Himalayan Adventure is the name of Indian’ s premier rafting organization. With years of experience in hospitality as well as in India’s Himalayan Rivers.

River Rafting in India offers to the adventurous traveler to enjoy the thrill of white water river rafting. The most popular rafting places are Garhwal Himalayas in Uttarakhand. If you also want to enjoy camping in rishikesh, stay in a riverside camp situated on sandy beach or ganges.

The camps at Rishikesh are very much environmentally friendly – no detergent, no plastic, no chewing gum and no electricity. Only gas lanterns, tents and sandpits. People say Rishikesh rafting is most enjoyable river rafting in india.

Central Himalayan Adventure has launched specialized Rishikesh rafting weekend package suitable to all kind of people from amateur to experienced one. These are:

– Day Rafting Trips in Rishikeshday-rafting-trips-in-rishikesh

Rafting on the Ganga water is certainly an unusual experience that one can not forget. So Come at Brhampuri Shivpuri, Byasi ,Kaudiyala near Rishikesh and enjoy and explore the life time experience on a date great Ganges. Your first encounter with rafting at the Ganga will be the beginning of the addiction of Rafting fun, and you will try your hands with rafting again and again.

Central Himalayan Adventure Services are following:

– Camping in Rishikesh: Rishikesh is a popular destination among rafting lovers. It is especially a big hit among diplomats and executives. Rafting is an exciting sport best enjoyed with professional and commercial rafting guides and rafting instructors with tourist rafters in a rubber boat names as raft, if you also want to enjoy camping at rishikesh, stay in a riverside camp situated on sandy beach or ganges.

– Rafting Rafting in India: River Rafting is one of the most thrilling and sensational adventure sports known to humans. Those who have had the thrill of water rafting expeditions can guarantee this. Rafting in turbulent waters is an experience that you will treasure the rest of your life. The foot-hills of the Himalayas serve as the perfect playground for river rafting in India.

– Trekking in Indian Himalayas: We offer specialized tour packages for Trekking in Himalayas. We have designed trips with you in mind – whether you are a novice with no trekking experience, but have a desire to trek or whether you are an experienced mountain walker looking for wider options. Our treks in Himalayas range from easy adventures for the family to strenuous ones for those seeking high adventure.

– Rafting Trips in Rishikesh: Rafting on the Ganga water is certainly an unusual experience that one can not forget. So Come at Brhampuri Shivpuri, Byasi ,Kaudiyala near Rishikesh and enjoy and explore the life time experience on a date great Ganges. Your first encounter with rafting at the Ganga will be the beginning of the addiction of Rafting fun

Read more about River Rafting in India and Camping in Rishikesh

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Plywood Boat Plans The World Standard – A Small Tip!

| Posted in Plywood Boat Plans

You’ll soon be able to build a plywood world standard boat plans and discover some exciting recent findings that you’ll want to be familiar with. There are several issues directly connected with this realm which will need to be spelled out.

I am absolutely sure that if you’re serious about learning how to design boats in your free time you owe it to yourself to read about what i have just found out.

Click Here to build a plywood world standard boat plans now!

As I’m sure you realize, with the internet it’s an easy matter to discover enlightening ideas about whatever interests us, even on the subject of how to design boats in your free time.

By now you’re probably aware that buying a boat can be quite expensive – unfortunately, this isn’t the only problem and there are other issues in this subject that hopefully will be remedied soon.

Having spent a lot of time scouring the web, attempting to track down answers i could have faith in, i would definitely have to go with easy boat projects. Let us begin: i found out that it provides easy to understand diagrams, and surely you will all recognize why this is a big deal.

Can you ask for more? it shows you the way to construct Kayaks and model boats – picture for yourself what you might do with this.

You may have thought about some of this before, or it may have never occurred to you, but there’s no doubt that you should keep these points in mind. People sometimes take it further with this and here’s one i like: use it to build boats for others – how would this benefit you most?

It is true that at first, i had no idea it could make these things possible, but slowly I’ve discovered that there is more than you’d think at first look.

Don’t put it off any longer to confidently go towards your worthwhile goal to build a plywood world standard boat plans – in a matter of a few moments, this goal will be within reach. In this territory, there are new developments; with the convenience of the internet you can be aware of them, so you have probably just been advised of the latest info.

The topic of DIY boat design needed a different approach – in the end, though, progress has been made and we can take advantage of it (although i must admit that it isn’t 100% perfect). Reading about all this can be very helpful, but you’ll never know if something will “fit the bill” for you or not without a “test drive”.

Now you should acknowledge what you’ve just read and benefit from it; i did everything to make it as clear as possible and i hope my goal was achieved.

Learn how to build a plywood world standard boat plans right now!

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Help! My Boat Is Stuck, And It Can’t Get Out!

| Posted in Boat Weather

Had enough yet?

Cold weather got you down?

Looking for ways to fight winter blues?

Living in Minnesota, we “locals” like to think that we’re pretty tough. After all, who in there right mind would live in a climate where one day it’s -50 degree windchill and the next it’s calm and balmy at +30 degrees.

Of course, calm and balmy is a relative term, right?

A few years ago my wife and I booked a Bahama Cruise. We arrive in Miami to a “balmy 60 degree brisk wind”. The locals were freezing while we’re thinking this is great shorts weather.

We set sail. The sky is clear, the sunset is beautiful as we pull out of the harbor. This is going to be great!

Well, let’s just say that we eventually nick named the trip our Polar Bahama Cruise.

We made it to Bahama the next morning and woke up to driving rain. The weather cleared up enough by the time we were done with breakfast, which on “cruise time” tends to run into late morning. It was definitely a light jacket day.

The next day we wake up to rough seas and to the announcement that the inclement weather would prevent us from making a scheduled stop at one of Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines islands. Bummer! We were going to hunker down and keep sailing for Key West.

After a long day of sailing in brisk and somewhat chilly wind we arrive in Key West. The temp? An unbelievable 10 degrees cooler than Minneapolis on that day. WHAT?

Boy, where the sweatshirts selling that day. I chuckled as we walked up to the waiting line at Earnest Hemingway’s house. We were in shorts, sweatshirts and/or light jackets and the guy taking tickets was wearing gloves. He didn’t seem to have much sense of humor that day as I tried to make light of the situation.

So, back to present day.

It just snowed another 6.4 inches of snow yesterday. We have had 5 days of school closings due to cold wind chills and instead of a week long January thaw we live with one day at a time when we see 30 something degrees.

So how do hardy mid westerners cure winter blues? How do we avoid sad winter blues? Here are some tips to combat winter blues.

– Dress appropriately and go skiing

– Go ice fishing

– Go to an indoor boat show

– Go Snowmobiling

– Go snow shoeing

– Go for a walk

– Burn a pile of brush

– Research and plan for new warm weather fishing tactics

– Go through your warm weather fishing gear

– Head South for a few days, a week or a month

The winter blues seasonal affective disorder is more about attitude than anything else. Whether preparing to bake in the sun or chilling next to a comfortable fire while ice fishing, it’s all relative.

I prefer to do a little inside and outside like going through my warm weather fishing gear, re-spool some reels, plan or shop for some new tackle and write about warm weather fun.

We have a saying in this part of the woods-

Just wait 24 hours.

The weather will change!

Fish on,

Doug Palmer

http://www.streetarticles.com/fishing/help-my-boat-is-stuck-and-it-cant-get-out

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Morwenna, A Ship Of Legend

| Posted in Sailing

This day Wednesday 29th of January I am put to the test. On this day I have once again been faced with a personal “Issue” or dilema, the selling of my beautiful little ship the “Morwenna”. For those who have never owned or sold a ship it may seem strange, maybe even fickle.

For me it is not. It is personal, intimate and at the same time a wonderful exercise in release. First I need to lay down some details. My vessel was built in 1912, think about it, before Adolf Hitler was doing his thing.

It is made of wood and has been floating around in the Northern hemisphere all that time…She has been attacked by pirates, slingered around in the Caribbean, been my home in the middle of Amsterdam and she has been so much more that I have no knowledge of.

Men and their ships are funny things, I am not sure if I like the idea or hate it and I am damned sure it will take me a good long while to let go. This in its self is an exercise that I take pleasure in. It is a reminder that form should never be taken too seriously and that attachment to any -thing is a figment of our imagination. Our perception once again creates our reality.

The message is I think that all things leave an imprint in our souls and that we choose to put ourselves in certain situations so that we can experience these things. At the end of the day we are working with our Karma. I am not sure but I think I am finally able to make decisions for pure and wholesome reasons- thanks to my 12 years on board.

Things I will hold on to: =memories of Beautiful weather and beauford scale 4 winds pushing northwards to ter Schelling. Sea lions saying hi, the sexiest line I ever saw on a boat and all of the friends who have enjoyed her.

SUNSET ON THE BOOM.

Things I will gladly let go of: Sand paper!!, Tearing my shoulder out of its joint and screwing up my back by ripping planks out and trying to bend them back in ….alone. Sinking! Sinking while sleeping!! The stern falling off on the way to Lemmer with 8 drunk people on board and one small “rescue boat”, though I am not sure if you could save anything with that half inflated piece of leaky rubber.

At the end of the day I would strongly advise anyone to become the owner of an old WOODEN sailing vessel. It is an exercise in character building, it will push you to the limit and change the way you look at the world. Her name was Morwenna which is Welsh for tomorrow……

http://www.streetarticles.com/spirituality/morwenna-a-ship-of-legend

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